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A guide to business research and writing at LU

Business Definitions

Quick Business Writing Tips

First, Know Your Audience

Often our writing suffers because it’s inappropriate. We write convoluted emails, we format reports poorly, and overall we don’t try to make our content reader-friendly.

Knowing the purpose a piece of writing serves gives you a sense of direction. Writing a business report should follow a specific format; for example, an in-office email could be short and informal, but a customer email or a PowerPoint presentation should follow guidelines of courtesy, clarity, and conciseness. Your audience should be your compass; keeping in mind what the recipient seeks to learn narrows down the possible directions your writing should take.

Style, tone, and vocabulary use should be in line with your audience and situation. This is not just a matter of appropriateness and content effectiveness, it’s about your flexibility to communicate adeptly with different audiences, empathize with them, and thus be able to connect at an appropriate and effective wavelength.

Focus on Content and Style

Is your writing organized along the following essential features and rules?

Simple Language – Create reader-friendly content by avoiding adjectives, using the active voice, and opting for commonly-known, shorter words. Your aim is to communicate your point across as effortlessly and as quickly as possible. Avoid "hidden verbs" by being conscious of unnecessary nominalization; for example, instead of saying, "We’d love to be of assistance" say instead, “We’d love to assist you.” The second sentence is more effective and customer-friendly, because it’s direct, efficient, and comprehensible.

Conciseness and Brevity – Business writing has to be succinct. Your audience doesn’t have the luxury to browse through multiple report pages to get the information they seek. Respect your recipients’ time; they should be able to access important information easily. You can achieve this when you:

  • Stick to your subject matter
  • Focus on facts
  • Aim for clarity and avoid ambiguity
  • Choose short words
  • Avoid unnecessary décor (adjectives and adverbs)

Distinguishing Opinion From Facts – These two aspects of communication should be clearly separated in business writing. Ensure the reader can tell with certainty when something is a fact or merely your viewpoint. This way you’ll avoid misunderstandings and you’ll keep your writing ambiguity-free.

Serving a Purpose – Each piece of business communication should serve a clear purpose. Make an effort to not divert from this purpose. If you’re emailing a colleague with a follow-up email about a report due, don’t include three other unrelated requests in the same email.

Use Formatting Wisely

Every piece of writing should be formatted appropriately to maximize efficiency. Use headlines, bullet points, numbering, and other formatting features (bold, italics, different colors) to ensure the reader can skim and scan with ease through your text. But don't overdo it! Too many distracting visual elements take the focus off your message.

This applies to all types of writing. Whether it's an email, a report, or a presentation, formatting helps your writing become clear and user-friendly. When possible, substitute text with visual presentations, graphics or charts.

Proofread Thoroughly, Revise Ruthlessly

Your first draft shouldn’t be your final product. Especially if we’re talking about a business proposal or report, it’s crucial that you review and edit it multiple times until you’ve created a respectable version.

  • Putting so much work into creating a professional piece of writing should wrap up with thorough proofreading. Ensure you check for syntactical, grammatical, and typographical errors. If you cannot proofread your own work, have it proofread by someone else to ensure it has flow and readability and is free of embarrassing errors.
  • You can also run it through an online spellchecker to catch common grammatical errors and misspellings, but remember that spellcheckers cannot detect contextual spelling errors (e.g. if the misspelled word is a properly spelled different word, like their/they’re, accept/except, right/write, here/hear). Spelling errors can best be avoided by improving your spelling skills using software like Ultimate Spelling.
  • Being aware of commonly misspelled words or grammatical weaknesses you have will help you anticipate and prevent them from spoiling your writing.

Be Aware of Attitude and Perspective

This is a rarely emphasized aspect of business writing. It’s not enough to know your audience and what they want from you. It’s crucial that you also know the different layers of meaning your writing conveys. Word choice, sentence structure, viewpoints, and expressions all reveal more than you think about your attitude and perspective on what you’re writing about.

The "You"-attitude is an aspect of business writing worth considering. It suggests that your writing should adopt the point of view of the reader, rather than yours. By embracing the recipient’s perspective you’re more likely to elicit positive responses. When the reader is the focal point, then they’re keener to help, support, partake or act in what you ask them to. The You-attitude motivates the reader to act towards your desired direction, makes you appear more trustworthy, and promotes a feel-good atmosphere.

It might seem like a lot of work, but it’s worth it to focus on these five points and polish up your business writing skills. The benefits of doing so are many; you’ll find it easier to communicate your thoughts and people will be more likely to understand and consider your ideas.

Article provided by: Ultimate Spelling

Welcome to the Department of Business


The Department of Business at Lincoln University is committed to providing our diverse students with excellent education opportunities using state-of-the-art classroom equipment. The faculty pursues excellence in teaching supported by innovative and interactive classroom technology. Our faculty also engages in research that helps with up-to-date learning within the various programs. The Department of Business offers a Bachelor of Science degree in the following areas: Accounting, Business Administration, Business Education, Marketing and Public Administration.

There is something to be said about how education helps to better the human condition by enabling individuals to first better themselves.  Approaching education as a means to freedom, well-being, prosperity, and justice is needed in today's global economy. The Department of Business offers many classes that help our students understand themselves and the world. Whether in personal finance, management, accounting, marketing, finance, organizational behavior, etc., the Department of Business seeks to equip our students with knowledge (tools) that will help them succeed in business and in any organization.   



What is Business Research?

Business research is “a field of practical study in which a company obtains data and analyzes it in order to better manage the company” (Houston Chronicle, 2014).   It includes financial data, product research, competitive analysis, and industry data.  Business leaders and managers use this information to develop business strategies to maintain or secure a competitive advantage in the marketplace. 


Business Research as a Management Tool

Business research is a critical management tool that is used to understand competitive challenges, consumer needs, production and financial performance, and growth opportunities.   The data and analysis from business research can be used to compare internal performances with that of competitors to understand current market challenges, diagnose business problems, understand and manage risk through trend and competitive analysis, and inform business strategies.   Business research may involve the gathering of primary or secondary business data.   It all starts with a clear understanding of the purpose of the research.


  • Primary business research may involve focus groups, questionnaires, experiments, or observational studies.


  • Secondary business research involves data collected by third-party entities such as governmental agencies, media sources, or trade associations.  Secondary information can be valuable in preparation for primary research.   It can identify consumer and industry trends, estimate demand, select target markets, or measure advertising exposure.  Secondary information is also used as a source for data mining. 



Subject Guide