All about acids and bases - this set of seven lessons covers everything you need to know about the fundamental concepts (Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, and Lewis) of acids and bases. Other lessons cover an elementary treatment of pH and titration, how to recognize acidic and basic substances from their structures, and a gallery of commonly-encountered acids and bases. Aside from the material on pH, there is no math in this lesson set; acid-base equilibrium calculations are not covered here.
Acid-base without algebra A simple graphical method of solving pH problems that gives as good answers as algebraic solutions and provides a global view of what species are significant at any pH. Especially useful for polyprotic systems which would otherwise require solution of many simultaneous equations.
Acid-base tutorial (PDF format; Dan Dill, Boston U) - this excellent tutorial covers all the major topics commonly encountered at the general chemistry level, with an unusualy thorough treatment of buffer systems.
ChemBuddy pH Calculation tutorials - an extensive set of online tutorials covering most aspects of acid-base calculations.
The fall of the proton: Will this acid react with that base? How to understand acid-basereactions (This simple view of modern acid-base theory dates from 1954, but still hasn't made it into the standard textbooks.
Acid-base review (UNC-Chapel Hill) offers a compact treatment of the fundamentals of acid-base calculations.
Acid-base titration simulator - this easy-to-use page allows you to explore a large variety of acid-base systems, including polyprotic ones. There is also the choice of using "first-year" or mass-charge balance methods.
Atoms and the periodic table - a six-chapter first-year level treatment of basic quantum theory, atomic spectra, electron configurations, chemical periodicity and the organization of the periodic table. Part of S.K. Lower's General Chemistry Virtual Textbook.
Basic atomics: atoms, elements, and isotopes - an introductory treatment for beginning students, suitable for the very early part of a general chemistry course. (SK Lower, Simon Fraser University)
Introduction to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules - a well-organized series of pages which extend into chemical bonding. (Alfred Bader, McMaster U)
Primer on Quantum Theory of the Atom - A set of in-frequently asked questions in the form of a quantum catechism.
Atomic orbital visualization - see the The Orbitron: a gallery of orbitals -- and also the references on our visualization page.
All about chemical bonding (Steve Lower, SFU) - this 10-part site provides in-depth coverage of everything you need to know about molecular structure and bonding at the General Chemistry level. Includes separate sections on polar covalence, VESPR, hybrid orbitals, molecular orbitals, coordination complexes and metals.
Models of chemical bonding - Do chemical bonds really exist? Nobody has ever "seen" one, so the best we can do is construct models. Here is a brief summary of those you should know about.
Covalent, ionic, or what? Coming to terms with covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding, and with mixtures thereof. Guaranteed to give you more insight to this than your textbook does!
The electron-tunneling model of chemical bonding How can those electron-dot diagrams showing shared electrons happily sitting between the nuclei be consistent with the principle that opposite charges attract? The model described here is the simplest one that really explains bonding, but you are unlikely to find it in any textbook!
Interactions between molecular units - this tutorial for first-year students looks at ionic-, van der Waals attractions, and the universal repulsive force, and how these lead to potential energy curves. (Part of theChem1 Virtual Textbook)
Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics - An introduction to rates of reaction, rate laws, half-life, activation energy, the Arrhenius equation, and reaction mechanisms. (Chem1 Virtual Textbook)
Chung Chieh's Chemical Kinetics tutorial at U of Waterloo (Canada) includes test questions with answers.
Kinetics Explorer - an introduction to the study of chemical kinetics based on the exploration of dynamic phenomena. Includes some good simulations. (St. Olaf College)
Online kinetics simulator from Gary Bertrand.
The fall of the electron. How to predict the direction of oxidation-reduction reactions. Discussion of the activity series of the elements and of oxidation-reduction in metabolism. (S.K. Lower, SFU)
Redox reactions (UNC-Chapel Hill) Good summary of how to balance redox reactions; also covers cell potentials and Faraday's laws.
ChemTeam lessons on oxidation-reduction
ChemiCool Periodic Table (MIT)
The Periodic Table of Videos - click on an element, and watch a two-minute video from U. of Nottingham that describes the element and its uses.
Comic book periodic table - if both comics and chemistry are important in your life, you'll love this!
It's Elemental - this is not so much a periodic table as a series of links to excellent and interesting articles focussing on the history and uses of each element, written by authors having special expertise or interest in the element. Written in a style more journalistic than scientific, this set of articles appeared in a special 80thanniversary edition of Chemical & Engineering News.
iPod periodic table - well, it's not really the whole table, but just a handy element database to store along with your music.
Periodic Table of Poetry "Chemistry and poetry together as never before."
Solids and materials
Exploring the Nanoworld - This wonderful site is maintained by the NSF-financed Interdisciplinary Education Group at U Wisc-Madison. It uses examples of nanotechnology and advanced materials to explore science and engineering concepts mainly at the college level, but there are also sections for K-12. There are links to movies, lab experiments, kits (including Lego nanobricks) and instructional materials.
Exploring Materials Engineering - links to a variety of sites relating to materials and polymer science.
BuckyBalls (Buckminsterfullerenes, those soccer-ball-like carbon structures)
Polymers. The outstanding site > Macrogalleria covers the structures and properties of polymers in an uncommonly engaging way. Highly recommended.
Chemical Energetics: all about enthalpy, thermochemistry and the First Law of thermodynamics - An extensive, in-depth but largely non-mathematical substitute for the usual (and rather thin) textbook treatment. S.K. Lower, Simon Fraser University
Thermodynamics of equilibrium: all about entropy, free energy, the Second Law of thermodynamics, and why reactions take place— sometimes. S.K. Lower, Simon Fraser University.
The Second Law: The biggest, most powerful, most general idea in all of science. A lively, non-mathematical exposition of the way that entropy and activation energy battle it out in the world as we know it. By Frank Lambert of Occidental College. An alternative version, directed to non-science students and adults, is also available. See also Lambert's non-technical description of how activation energies modify the application of the Second Law. See also Shakespeare and Thermodynamics: Dam the Second Law, and this "What is entropy?" conversation.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Evolution, and Probability. Explains how the development and evolution of life is consistent with the principle that the entropy of the world never decreases.
Units and conversion factors
Units and dimensions for chemistry - includes charts showing the ranges of the scales such as length, mass, temperature, etc. that are important in chemistry.
Online unit conversions - Here are several useful ones: OnlineConversion.com - "digital dutch" Unit Converter - convert-me.com - EasyUnitConverter -Convert Auto -
Units, measures and conversions information can be found at a number of sources: